Transformational, Transactional and Laissez Faire leadership theory. 1. .. acquired traits and styles, to situational and relationship types of leadership, to the. style and a significant relationship between management level and project success. . The theory of the transformational and transactional leadership was first. correlation (0, at the 0,01 level) between leadership styles and organisational climate Theoretical relationship link between leadership styles and.
All the data supporting the presented findings is contained within the manuscript. The dataset that was used to write this manuscript has been submitted alongside other supplementary documents. Abstract Background Leadership is key to strengthening performance of Health Systems.
There is limited research exploring this relationship among health workers in resource-limited settings such as Uganda. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles and motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork of health workers in Uganda.
Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in 3 geographic regions of Uganda in Novemberusing self-administered questionnaires with health workers from health facilities. Using Pearson correlation, relationships among variables were identified and associations of the components of leadership styles with motivation, job satisfaction, and teamwork was found using multivariable logistic regression.
Conclusion Transformational styles had a positive impact on stimulating motivation, assuring job satisfaction, and consolidating teamwork among health workers compared with those who demonstrated transactional skills or laissez-faire styles. Recommendation Supporting transformational leadership skills development in health facility leaders could encourage health worker motivation, strengthen job satisfaction, and maintain cohesion among health workers for better service delivery. The final stage includes transactional theory and transformational theory, where the relationship between the leader and his followers is explored.
Leadership Style Leadership style is modeled after a leader's behaviors, which is encompassed under behaviorist theory.
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Within this category, different patterns of leadership behavior are observed and then categorized as leadership styles. Practicing managers tend to be the most interested in researching this particular theory because with it leaders have the ability to alter their style based on the beliefs, values, preferences and culture of the organization they work for.
Examples of Leadership Style Leadership styles can be broken down in several different ways depending on what information is being looked at. For example, an organization interested in how decisions are made may define leaders as either being autocratic or democratic.
Another organization may have more interest in how leaders handle situations and choose to define them as being charismatic, participative, situational, transactional, transformational, quiet or servant-like. Given that uncertainty surrounds many situations in organizations, leaders need to be involved with their staff.
In this way, leaders can keep focused on key issues and ensure that organizational learning takes place. The quantity and quality of interaction in an organization tends to influence the style of organizational management with the main issue being that employees must work together in order to accomplish tasks. According to Naylorfor organizations to be effective: Organizations can operate as open or closed systems.
An open system receives information, which it uses to interact dynamically with its environment.
- Theory Application
- Leadership Theory
- Examples of Leadership Theory
Organizations are open systems. Openness increases the likelihood of better communication and in turn the functioning and survival of organizations Ololube, Some people tend to react more to certain styles of leadership than others.
Individuals who like to depend on others generally do not like to participate in organizational affairs since their need for security and direction is better served by a rigid organizational structure.
Those with an understandable sense of direction wish to advance in their careers and enjoy participating in organizational decision-making processes tend to be more inclined towards open and collaborative leadership styles.
Leaders should adapt to such situations by providing opportunities for participation to those who desire them and directing those who find it more difficult to participate in organizational decision-making Ibara, Goal Congruency The term goal congruence is applied to an organization that ensures that all its operations and activities support the achievement of its goals.
Organizations with high goal congruence review their operations and activities to ensure that none of these limit or inhibit the ability to achieve organizational goals. In a situation like this, there is a unity of direction as everybody individuals, departments and divisions is working towards the attainment of a common goal.
Different leadership styles may be called for depending on the degree of existing goal congruence in an organization. Level of Decision Making Differentiating effective leaders from ineffective leaders is a major management concern. In addition to leadership ability, employee perception often plays a big role in the implementation and outcome of decisions Weddle, In a centralized organization, there is little or no provision for decisions or input from lower level staff.
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Directives are handed down and strict obedience is expected. Leadership in these organizations tends to be directive rather than participative or laissez-faire. Hence, the location of decision-making, which is the functional specialization of the organization, determines the style of leadership that is called for Ibara, Weddle identified five levels of decision making in organizations.
With each level the amount of time and the decision making involvement increases: This level requires little time and no staff involvement. This is particularly useful in crisis situations where immediate action is needed. Leader gathers input from individuals and makes the decision.
Leadership Theory vs. Leadership Style
The leader seeks input, usually to cover blind spots and enhance the depth of understanding of the issue at hand. Key individuals hold important information and not consulting is seen to be irresponsible. Leader gathers input from team and makes the decision. The group processes all possible options and compromises until everyone is in agreement. The leader delegates decision making to the team and is not a part of decision making discussions.
Educational Leadership and Management Processes Leadershipis the process of influencing employees towards the achievement of organisational goals and organisational excellence Naylor, Outstanding leaders have a vision for their institutions. They have a picture of the preferred future, which is shared with all in the institution and which shapes the programmes of learning and teaching as well as the policies, priorities, plans and procedures pervading the day-to-day life of the institution Beare et al.
Leadership in the educational context is also the ability to anticipate the future. Through words and examples, leaders in education inspire the whole system by effectively influencing the behaviours, thoughts, and feelings of those working within it, and ensure their vision by creating a strategic alignment across the whole system Peretomode, However, no matter how effective leaders are, they are faced with numerous obstacles which they must manage and contain in order to succeed.
Warren Bennis in Anyamele argued that leadership is a creative enterprise, involving all in innovating and initiating. Leadership looks at the horizon and not just at the bottom-line. A leader makes good decisions which imply a goal, a direction, an objective, a vision, a dream, a path, and a reach.
According to Bennis, a leader does the following: Leadership has to get people in the organisation to buy into a shared vision and then translate that vision into reality. Leaders motivate people by helping them to identify with the task and the goal, rather than by rewarding or punishing them.
Leaders inspire and empower people; they pull rather than push. Leaders must know how to generate and sustain trust.
In order to do this, leaders must reward people for disagreeing, reward innovation, and tolerate failure. To create trust a leader must behave with integrity. Finally, to generate trust and be an effective leader a leader must achieve congruency between what he or she does and says and what his or her vision is. A leader creates meaning by maintaining an environment where people are reminded of what is important.
A leader helps to define the mission of the institution and models the behaviour that will move the organisation towards goals. Leaders are people who can eloquently use words to express the collective goals of the organisation. Effective leadership empowers the workforce to generate commitment, and developed the feeling that organisation members are learning, and that they are competent.
Good leaders make people feel that they are at the very heart of things, not on the periphery. Bureaucracy does not create leaders, bureaucracy creates managers and bureaucrats. Managing change is perhaps the ultimate leadership challenge.
Strong leadership can often be seen in organisations based on a network or flattened hierarchy model — a more centralised model where the key words are acknowledge, create and empower. On the whole, vision and constancy of purpose are central concerns of leaders in educational management and planning. They seek to establish the best educational policies and strategies, which involves the improvement of educational programmes and administrative services aimed at creating competent graduates capable of entering significant positions in society and, in turn, improving educational practices and procedures Ololube, Wallace and Hoyle argue that effective leadership and management of the education systems require a shift of direction away from current orthodoxies of radical transformation promoted by reform policies towards a more temperate approach.
Educational management processes involve the arrangement and deployment of systems that ensure the implementation of policies, strategies, and action plans throughout a set of integrated practices in order to achieve educational goals. Process performance can only be optimised through a clear understanding of how different units of work fit into the whole. Process performance ensures that a fit for purpose management system of the education is developed, implemented and constantly improved.
Process performance, when documented and analysed scientifically and compared with desirable outcomes, generates facts on the basis of which the processes in question can be effectively managed and continuously improved.
According to Wallace and Hoyleeffective leadership and management mean less leadership and management. Teachers have now become caught up in specific managerial roles and distributed leadership, relieving teachers of non-teaching tasks where possible would enable them to concentrate more on their teaching means less leadership and management in school systems.
The authors of this article suggest that the benefits of accepting effective leadership principles and styles in school management are immediate and real because effective leadership provides a number of key characteristics which have been proven to be of momentous worth: However, the methods can be defined to suit the circumstances of the particular school.
Conclusions More frequently, academic commentaries and books surface that blends theoretical, empirical, and practical ideas and knowledge relevant to understanding studies, methodologies and issues essential to educational leadership. These syntheses are only achieved with the reflective ability of the authors to link thematic issues across wider range and overlapping themes from which they start off and become known. To this end, this article has discussed effective educational leadership in school management and a quality wake up call for a better model that has applicability to the Nigerian education contexts.
By examining the circumstances surrounding quality educational leadership in relation to school management, this article could conclude that success is certain if the application of the leadership styles, principles and methods is properly and fully applied in school management. Quality educational leadership tradition offers great opportunity to further refine educational leadership and management policies and practices by accepting and utilizing the basic principles and styles. The authors wish to propose that outstanding educational leadership principles and styles be adopted as a means of enhancing school management in Nigeria, given that at present things are not progressing after decades of schooling in Nigerian public school management.
Educational managers know that leadership requires a number of judgments each day that requires sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Thus, bridging the gap between theory and practice should be able to provide exploration of dominant leadership strategies to give school leaders a solid basis in theory and practical application.
School leaders are encouraged to discover the most appropriate leadership strategy, or a combination of strategies that will best enable their school achieve results. Effective educational leadership style in school management is relatively fast, easy and cost effective if applied appropriately. The results of the effective educational leadership style applications are feasible for a number of purposes, which include improve administrative performance, team-building, and enhanced individual and school innovation in teaching and learning.
The Concept of Leadership.