Biological interaction - Wikipedia
Imagine life without your best friend. Who would you There are three different types of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. Examples can illustrate what symbiosis is and the various kinds of symbiosis. Commensalism is a type of relationship where one of the organisms benefits. When two parties depend on one another — whether in a biological, social, or financial relationship — and both benefit from the alliance, that's mutualism.
And it can go even further: A single individual animal can act as a different type of consumer depending on what it is eating. When a bear eats berries, for example, it is being a primary consumer, but when it eats a fish, it might be a secondary or a tertiary consumer, depending on what the fish ate!
All organisms play a part in the web of life and every living thing will die at some point. This is where scavengers, detritivores which eat detritus or parts of dead thingsand decomposers come in. They all play a critical role that often goes unnoticed when observing the workings of an ecosystem.
They break down carcasses, body parts and waste products, returning to the ecosystem the nutrients and minerals stored in them. This interaction is critical for our health and health of the entire planet; without them we would be literally buried in dead stuff.
Crabs, insects, fungi and bacteria are examples of these important clean-up specialists.
Another category of interactions between organisms has to do with close, usually long-term interaction between different types of organisms. These interactions are called symbiosis. The impacts of symbiosis can be positive, negative, or neutral for the individuals involved.
Organisms often provide resources or services to each other; the interaction is mutually beneficial. For example, ants living in a tree may protect the tree from an organism that would like to make the tree its next meal, and at the same time the tree provides a safe home for the ants. Symbiotic relationships are not always positive for both participants. Sometimes there are definite losers. The predator benefits and the prey is harmed lethally, but it is a short-term interaction.
In parasitism, the parasite does not usually kill its host, but just feeds on it for a long time while it is living. The interaction is seemingly neutral for one of the organisms. For example, a barnacle attached to a whale is able to travel thousands of miles collecting and filtering food from the moving water.
But then again, maybe those little hitchhikers are actually creating a tiny amount of additional drag as the whale moves through the water and therefore the whale has to expend just a little bit of additional energy. If so, that would be a negative impact for the whale.
Often, further research reveals that what was originally thought to be neutral for one participant and therefore an example of commensalism, actually has a very subtle positive or negative impact, so the classification is no longer commensalism, but rather mutualism or parasitism. Is a bird nest on a tree limb commensalism, or is there some slight advantage or disadvantage for the tree in having the nest there? It is possible to come up with plausible explanations either way; only detailed research could provide the necessary information to answer the question.
Competition is an interesting example of interactions.
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Competition is also an interesting example because it is just as likely to be intraspecific as interspecific language alert: An intraspecific interaction occurs within a species e. If the competition is long-term and occurs between two different species, it would be another example of symbiosis. In summary, there are many different kinds of interactions between organisms in an ecosystem and it is not unusual for any particular organism to wear many hats and play multiple roles at different times.
For example, we humans are consumers and predators when we hunt, kill, and eat other animals such as a fish or a deer, or when we eat chicken we have purchased at the grocery store or a restaurant.
We also have many mutualistic relationships with other organisms, such as our pets. Competition also occurs between humans for resources, even mates!
For the most part, these relationships are the norm for many unicellular entities. For example, a unicellular eukaryotic a cell with an encased nucleus inside it organism Paramecium bursaria serves as a host to eukaryotic Chlorella algae cells. The alga produces energy via the photosynthesis process, and the paramecium benefits as it receives some of that energy or food.
Additionally, the algae reside inside a protected, mobile home — the body of the paramecium. Organisms That Live on the Surface of Another Another kind of mutualistic symbiosis involves one organism living on the skin or surface of another in a mutually beneficial relationship.
Leaf cutter ants have a special symbiont, a type of unicellular bacteria that lives on their skin.
mutualism - Dictionary Definition : szsizu.info
Leaf cutter ants bring the cut foliage back to the colony where they inject it with a special type of fungus. The fungus serves as a food source for the colony, which the bacteria protect from other invading fungi species. Transport Hosts and Food Sources A phoresy symbiotic relationship occurs when one organism lives on or near the body of another, but not as a parasite, and performs a beneficial service to the host and itself. A species of marine life, the remora fish, attach themselves to the bodies of whales, manta rays, sharks and turtles and even ships via sucking discs atop their heads.
The remora, also called shark suckers, don't harm the host nor take anything from it other than eating the parasitic sea creatures that infest it. Remora fish also use the disc to hitchhike a ride from the host. Oxpecker birds are common sites atop the backs of rhinoceros where they eat the parasites and ticks living there. They also fly in the air and scream when danger nears, providing a warning for the rhinoceros or zebra host. One Organism Benefits, the Other Is Unharmed Commensalistic relationships are those where one species receives all the benefit from its relationship with the other, but the other receives no benefit or harm.
A good example of this type of relationship occurs between grazing cattle and cattle egrets.
Relationships Between Organisms
As the cattle graze in the grass, they stir up the insects living there, allowing the cattle egret a tasty meal. The cattle egrets get a meal, but the cattle receive nothing in return from the long-necked birds, nor are they harmed by the relationship. One Benefits, the Other May or May Not Suffer The world is full of parasitic relationships where a living entity makes a home in or atop a host entity.
Most of the time, the parasite feeds on the host's body but does not kill the host. Two types of hosts exist in these relationships: A definitive host provides a home to an adult parasite, while an intermediate host unknowingly offers a home to a juvenile parasite. Ticks are examples of parasitic symbiosis, because as blood-sucking insects that thrive on the blood of its victims, they can also harm the host by transferring an infectious disease to it taken in from the blood of another organism.
A Symbiotic Relationship Where the Host Dies Science fiction is replete with examples of parasitoidism, but so is everyday life. In this type of symbiotic relationship, the host usually dies.
Many science fiction movies feature this type of relationship between humans and aliens, like in the "Alien" movie series. In parasitoidism, the host serves as a home for the larvae of the parasite. As the larvae mature, they escape the body of the host, killing it in the process.
In nature, braconid wasps lay their eggs atop the body of a tomato hornworm, and as the wasp larvae grow, they feed off the body of the hornworm, killing it during metamorphosis.
A Type of Symbiotic Relationship A well-known symbiotic relationship exists between a predator and its prey. In an ecological community, some entities live by eating the bodies of other organisms. Thought not considered a parasitic relationship because the predator does not live in or on the body of the animal it eats, it is still a symbiotic relationship because the predator would not survive without the other organism giving up its life.
The predator usually sits above its prey in the food chain, like the lion and the gazelle, the coyote and the rabbit or a household petand the wolf and the bison or other cloven hoof animals — ungulates — like deer and antelope. Predation is also responsible for all kinds of evolution in the prey: Where One or Both Inhibit the Population of the Other Competition between species occurs when both entities vie for the same resources in the ecosystem.
This type of symbiotic relationship works in reverse; one or both organisms suffer because of the existence of each other. Invasive species upset the delicate balance in ecological communities when they procure the resources meant for the native organisms.
Yellow starthistle, for example, a native species of Europe, more than likely hitched a ride to the U.