Cleopatra Seduces Antony, 41 BC
It was while he was in Egypt that Mark Antony met Cleopatra. Like Julius Caesar How did Octavian attempt to build up hatred against Mark Antony's forces? 3. Marc Antony In 41 BC he summoned Cleopatra to meet him in the city of Tarsus in modern-day Turkey. having formerly recommended her to Caesar and the young Pompey, she did not doubt might prove yet more successful with Antony. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra set her sights on the dashing Roman general Mark Antony. The two began an affair, resulting in twins in 40 B.C. Antony.
Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule.
When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia. Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long.
Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name. The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar.
The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome. Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy.
During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused. The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome.
Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own. A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader. Antony was supposed to attend with Caesar, but was waylaid at the door by one of the plotters and prevented from intervening.
According to the Greek historian Plutarchas Caesar arrived at the Senate, Lucius Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother.
Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenseless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Roman historian Eutropiusaround 60 or more men participated in the assassination. Caesar was stabbed 23 times and died from the blood loss attributable to multiple stab wounds.
When this did not occur, he soon returned to Rome. The conspirators, who styled themselves the Liberatores "The Liberators"had barricaded themselves on the Capitoline Hill for their own safety. Though they believed Caesar's death would restore the Republic, Caesar had been immensely popular with the Roman middle and lower classeswho became enraged upon learning a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion.
Antony, as the sole Consul, soon took the initiative and seized the state treasury. CalpurniaCaesar's widow, presented him with Caesar's personal papers and custody of his extensive property, clearly marking him as Caesar's heir and leader of the Caesarian faction.
Lepidus wanted to storm the Capitol, but Antony preferred a peaceful solution as a majority of both the Liberators and Caesar's own supporters preferred a settlement over civil war. Caesar's assassins would be pardoned of their crimes and, in return, all of Caesar's actions would be ratified.
Antony also agreed to accept the appointment of his rival Dolabella as his Consular colleague to replace Caesar. This compromise was a great success for Antony, who managed to simultaneously appease Caesar's veterans, reconcile the Senate majority, and appear to the Liberatores as their partner and protector. Antony would struggle with Octavian for leadership of the Caesarian party following Caesar's assassination.
On 19 March, Caesar's will was opened and read. In it, Caesar posthumously adopted his great-nephew Gaius Octavius and named him his principal heir. Then only 19 years old and stationed with Caesar's army in Macedonia, the youth became a member of Caesar's Julian clanchanging his name to "Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus" Octavian in accordance with the conventions of Roman adoption.
Though not the chief beneficiary, Antony did receive some bequests. Caesar's funeral was held on 20 March. Antony, as Caesar's faithful lieutenant and reigning Consul, was chosen to preside over the ceremony and to recite the elegy.
During the demagogic speech, he enumerated the deeds of Caesar and, publicly reading his will, detailed the donations Caesar had left to the Roman people. Antony then seized the blood-stained toga from Caesar's body and presented it to the crowd. Worked into a fury by the bloody spectacle, the assembly rioted.
Several buildings in the Forum and some houses of the conspirators were burned to the ground. Panicked, many of the conspirators fled Italy. Such an assignment, in addition to being unworthy of their rank, would have kept them far from Rome and shifted the balance towards Antony.
Refusing such secondary duties, the two traveled to Greece instead. Cleopatra was a seductive woman and she used her talents to maintain and expand her power. Her first conquest was Julius Caesar in 48 BC. He was 52, she was Their relationship produced a son and was ended only by Caesar's assassination. Her initial response to Antony's summons was to delay her journey - possibly to send the message to the Roman leader that as a queen in her own right, she was not at his beck and call.
Eventually surrendering to the inevitable, Cleopatra sailed from Egypt to the city of Tarsus.
Cleopatra commits suicide
As she made the final leg of her journey up the river Cydnus she traveled in a magnificent barge filled with flowers and scented with exotic perfumes while she reclined on deck surrounded by her servants and trappings of gold. Antony enjoyed women and once he saw her, he fell under her spell. We join his story as Cleopatra receives Antony's summons to join him: Their acquaintance was with her when a girl, young, and ignorant of the world, but she was to meet Antony in the time of life when women's beauty is most splendid, and their intellects are in full maturity.
She made great preparations for her journey, of money, gifts, and ornaments of value, such as so wealthy a kingdom might afford, but she brought with her her surest hopes in her own magic arts and charms. This not only enrages Octavian, it infuriates most Romans and they back Octavian in the struggle between the two leaders. The Parthian campaign results in only minor conquests, notably Armenia. Cleopatra bears Antony another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Mark Antony celebrates a victory triumph in Alexandria for his gains from the Parthians. At the celebration he awards Armenia to his and Cleopatra's oldest son, Alexander Helios. The area west of Armenia is awarded to the second son, Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The daughter Selene is given Cyprus. Furthermore, at the celebration Caesarion is publically declared to be the son of Julius Caesar and thus the king of kings. The celebration of a triumph in Alexandria was a serious offense to Romans. Such celebration were only supposed to take place in Rome, the capital of the empire. He publicizes its contents. Mark Antony's will made provision for turning parts of the Roman Empire over to Cleopatra. The Roman citizens are outraged.
Mark Antony and Cleopatra live together in Greece. At the height of the battle Cleopatra fearing capture takes her ships out of the battle. Mark Antony's forces alone are not strong enough to match those of Octavian and Mark Antony's forces are defeated.
His army surrenders to Octavian. Mark Antony escapes from the defeat and joins Cleopatra on her ship, but he is furious with her for having unnecessarily precipitated the defeat at Actium.
After several days he relents and he and Cleopatra stay together in Alexandria. Mark Antony has revealed himself as a loser and Cleopatra needs someone else who can protect her. Octavian communicates to Cleopatra that if she kills Mark Antony that he might work out something with her.
Cleopatra realizes that she is not powerful enough to expel Mark Antony from Egypt or to assassinate him. She conceives a fiendish plot. She has a message sent to Mark Antony saying that she had killed herself. Upon hearing that his loved one was dead he falls upon his sword. The injury does not kill him at once and he has himself taken to where Cleopatra's body is supposed to be. He finds her alive and tells her to make her peace with Octavian.
After Mark Antony's death Cleopatra realizes that Octavian can never treat her as anything but an enemy and that he will take her and her children to Rome to be paraded in a victory triumph. She sends Caesarion with trusted protectors to hide in the east of Egypt near the Red Sea. Cleopatra first intends to commit suicide by setting fire to the mausoleum where she has collected her treasures.
Cleopatra commits suicide - HISTORY
Roman soldiers find entry to the mausoleum and thwart her plans. She is taken captive. Cleopatra then arranges for a poisonous snake, an asp, to be smuggled to her in a basket of figs. She then commits suicide by allowing the asp to bite her on her chest. She arranged for her and Mark Antony to be buried together. Octavian sent agents to hunt down Caesarion and kill him. Thus ended the sad life of Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt at 39 years of age.
She was the last of the Ptolemy dynasty. Octavian was given the title of Caesar Augustus. The name of the sixth month in the Roman calendar was changed from Sextilis to August just as the fifth month's name had been changed to July.
Cleopatra (c.69 BC - 30 BC)
The fifth month had 31 days and the sixth 30 days. Octavian had the calendar changed so the month named after him had 31 days as well.
He never took the title emperor although that was what he was in fact.