Gay Marriage . A school uniform teaches students to dress smartly and take pride in their appearance. "I believe we should give strong support to school districts that Uniforms help to create unity amid diversity by easing ethnic and Public schools already have dress codes which ban provocative. What are the ethical implications of subjecting a student to emotional discomfort for the controversy stems from a belief that homeschooling may be academically grade or relationship with her/his teacher, many argue that denying a student a .. dress codes to prevent their students from wearing sexually provocative or. Many people believe that school uniforms build the community into a safer, more . has on student achievement, attendance, and behavior (Gentile & Imberman, pg. . The growing trend toward provocative clothing is a big concern of many .. The Ethics Of The School Dress Code · Url Is The Abbreviation Of Uniform.
However, it is not only men who dehumanize sexualized women and their representations. Widespread beliefs that women are sex objects are shared by both men and women at a basic cognitive level Gervais et al. When women sexualize their appearance, they are at a far greater risk than men. A focus on appearance, instead of personality, increased the objectifying gaze toward women, as demonstrated by increased eye movements toward their chests and waists compared to their faces Gervais et al.
Women are also known to self-objectify when they choose clothes for fashion over comfort Tiggemann and Andrew, For example, aerobics and ballet participants wearing tight-fitting outfits generated greater negative feelings toward their bodies, selves and performance, compared to those wearing loose-fitting outfits Price and Pettijohn, Higher levels of self-objectification have also resulted in unipolar depression, sexual dysfunction, and eating disorders McNelis-Kline, ; Prichard and Tiggemann, When put in a self-objectifying situation such as wearing a one-piece, Speedo bathing suitboth men and women of all ethnicities experienced negative outcomes.
Sexual objectification has more adverse consequences for women than for men Moradi and Huang, ; Saguy et al. Objectification also tends to make women behave as lesser beings in social interactions Saguy et al.
Haslam and Loughnan provide empirical support to explain the differentiation of humans from animals and robots, and demonstrate that such differences are convergent across cultures. Humans are distinct from animals in possessing and developing unique attributes like cognitive capacity, civility, and refinement.
Similarly, due to emotionality, vitality and warmth, the quality of humanness is different from inanimate objects Haslam and Loughnan, In the neural context, it is said to de-activate the social cognition network, specifically cortical regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus.
Should Students Have to Wear School Uniforms? - School Uniforms - szsizu.info
Through a series of experiments, Vaes et al. In contrast, women dehumanize sexually objectified women by distancing themselves from the sexualized representations of their own gender category. Another recent study points out that the perception of sexualized women deploys cognitive mechanisms specific to object perception, while sexualized men are perceived as persons Bernard et al.
Specifically, Bernard et al. Previous work has demonstrated that persons faces and bodies are recognized in an upright condition more easily, compared to when inverted. Further, Gervais et al. Further, Bernard et al. Replicating previous findings showing that sexualized female bodies, but not sexualized male bodies, elicited less configural processing and more objectification, the authors demonstrate the salience of sexual body parts as a crucial determinant of object-like part-based analytic processing of sexualized female bodies.
However, when body features were masked and humanizing information was provided—female bodies were processed configurally, indicating the possible plasticity of cognitive objectification of women.
Media Images and Objectification Besides social groups, peers and families, media images of women are one of the primary culprits in teaching girls to self-objectify Kilbourne, ; Kilbourne and Jhally, Images from television, video games, films, magazines, and many other sources disproportionately use female bodies to hock products, and the camera frame often focuses on female body parts rather than the whole picture in an objectifying manner Archer et al.
Roberts and Gettman suggest that mere exposure to objectifying media plays a significant role in the initiation of a self-objectified state along with its attendant psychological consequences for women. Peter and Valkenburg describe that there is increased sexual content in the media, and the sexualized portrayal of women in advertisements went up significantly between and Reichert and Carpenter, As stated previously, exposure to sexually objectifying media has been linked to self-objectification, body shame, anxiety over appearance, and an acceptance of the normative belief that women are sexual objects Ward and Friedman, ; Peter and Valkenburg, Lynch showed that body-revealing behaviors, when practiced within social contexts, served to reinforce patterns of sexual objectification of women rather than an expression of female sexual agency also see Levy, Grabe and Hyde report that self-objectification is mediated through a direct relation between music television MTV viewing and body esteem, dieting, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and confidence in mathematics ability in female viewers also see Harrison and Hefner, ; Grabe et al.
Females are portrayed as sex objects in a vast majority of magazine advertisements targeted both at men and women Lindner, ; Baker, ; Stankiewicz and Roselli, As is the case with adult women, Tiggemann and Slater provide further evidence that mere magazine and Internet exposure and appearance conversations with friends predicted self-objectification in early adolescent girls, which in turn causes body shame, dieting and depressive symptoms, in accord with the pathways postulated by objectification theory.
Widespread normalization of women-as-bodies in modern culture derives from the use of their bodies in advertising and entertainment Kilbourne and Jhally, ; also see Conley and Ramsey, Alongside, chilling cases of sexual offenses are rampant across nations with increasing incidence United Nations,pointing to a deeper, underlying issue of the objectifying gaze, aided and perpetuated globally through certain media representations of women and interpersonal encounters.
Exploring if cultural background may have modulatory effects on rape perception, Loughnan et al. Sexual objectification of women is encouraged, promoted and socially sanctioned through a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, beauty pageants, cheerleading, and cocktail waitressing Moffitt and Szymanski, ; Szymanski et al.
A study on gender bias highlights the problematizing of the female body in films across 11 countries Smith et al. The female body gains attention and is evaluated against unrealistic ideals that are often sexualized Fredrickson et al. Women learn to portray themselves as objects on display, believing their appearance determines their value Moradi and Huang, ; Szymanski et al. Smith further confirms that women who view glamorized and sexualized images were more likely to self-objectify using body and appearance descriptors.
The authors report covert, ambiguous sexualizing in clothing that makes objectification more complex. In a recent study, Galdi et al. Prelude to Violence As stated earlier, humans are distinguished from animals on attributes involving cognitive capacity, civility, and refinement, as well as from inanimate objects on the basis of emotionality, vitality, and warmth Haslam and Loughnan, Contrary to the belief that everyday forms of dehumanization are innocent and inconsequential, Kristoff has argued that the evidence reveals profoundly negative consequences for both victims and perpetrators.
Dehumanization, the denial of agency and personhood contributes to large-scale intergroup conflict and violence Haslam and Loughnan, ; Waytz et al. Dehumanization as a consequence of sexual objectification has dire consequences.
On the attitudinal front, sexually objectified humans are likened to objects or automata with no capacity for qualities such as warmth, emotion, and individuality Haslam, Both objectification and infra-humanisation make women vulnerable to violence. Similarly, research literature on the topic has established the sexualisation-to-meat link Adams, wherein the denial of emotionality and agency reduces animals to meat producing units.
The capacity of the animal to suffer is perceived to be significantly less when the animal is perceived as food Bratanova et al. Cruelty laws are differentially applied to pet and farm animals due to this distinction.
On the behavioral side, a number of studies Bargh et al. Some early research has shown that objectified women are subject to sexual harassment, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual attention Fitzgerald et al. Men with hostile and aggressive views toward women are more likely to objectify. Further, attribution of animalistic lack of agency and reduced pain attribution results in higher likelihood of violence toward objectified targets.
Rudman and Mescher demonstrate that men who implicitly associate women with animals and objects have a higher propensity for sexual aggression.
30 Most Controversial Education Practices in U. S. History – Top Education Degrees
Figueredo and Thornhill and Palmer have argued that males who commit rape are likely to have psychopathologies, social inadequacies, experience of childhood sexual trauma, lack of social competence and empathy Stermac and Quinsey, ; Lipton et al. Sexual assaulters are similar to other violent offenders and tend to have extensive non-sexual criminal histories. Examining the impact of objectification in the domain of sexual assault, Loughnan et al.
Dehumanization also underlies maltreatment and violence toward ethnic or racial minorities and animals. Reduced mind-attribution as a result of dehumanization makes it easier for the perpetrator to deny pain and agency to the dehumanized group. Research findings describe increased violent behavior, harsh treatment and reduced empathetic concern toward dehumanized targets Zebel et al. It seems predictable that sexual violence is a consequence of a dehumanized perception, particularly of female bodies and a generalized antisocial trait that aggressors acquire through their exposure and interpretation of body images.
Providing additional evidence for the mediating role of objectification in sexual violence, Gervais et al. Highlighting the sexual signaling function of clothing, Jeffreys points out that female clothing items also emphasize women as sexual objects aligned to male desires.
Women in provocative clothing are rated as more flirtatious, seductive, promiscuous, and sexually experienced—and as less strong, determined, intelligent, and self-respecting Koukounas and Letch, ; Gurung and Chrouser,emphasizing sexual availability and objectification. In contrast, Dunkel et al. Lahsaeizadeh and Yousefinejad describe the crucial interplay of attire in social contexts that determine the sexual harassment of women in public places.
Modified Perceptual and Cognitive Domains Recognition of the human body in a social context is mediated by clothing and other social symbols.
Body covering or attire became an integral part of creating a persona that is available for perception by others. Clothing is also one of the most significant indications of gender identity, even for very young children Pomerleau et al. Clothing likely played a role in the signaling that may have previously been learnt through bodily cues. To understand what attire means, it is essential to explore both semiotics, as well as neuro-cognitive mechanisms.
It does, however, point to how humans perceive and behave with their fellow members. Provocative dressing leading to sexual objectification biases the perception of sexual violence.
Certain cognitive domains can be formed or refined by interactions between neural mechanisms and learning exposure. Such exposures to cultural entrainment potentially recycle the neural resources otherwise utilized in more innately learnt biological behavior.
Within the domain of higher-level visual learning, humans started to recognize and associate meaning with certain symbols as in word reading that occurred much later in evolution as opposed to body perception.
For instance, in accordance with the neuronal recycling hypothesis, as a result of training to recognize and attribute meaning to symbols, a portion of the fusiform face area has been reallocated for word recognition Dehaene and Cohen, ; Anderson, Given some early evidence emerging in this context Bernard et al.
Clothing may also play a likely role in the cognitive-emotional development of complex emotions such as shame, guilt and modesty. This article posits that perceptual domains for body perception are potentially modified following objectified learning, cultural entrainment and exposure to sexualized bodies.
This sets the ground for further neuroscientific experimental investigations of the issue. This article has potential limitation for wider aspect of sexual violence research. The present analysis does not dismiss the possibility that other mechanisms such as psychopathology sexual disorders and personality disorders such as volitional impairment, Paraphilia; Quinsey et al.
Instead, the focus here has been on connecting the links between attire, objectification and dehumanization that leads to sexual violence. The sexual subjectification, which is a result of women internalizing the judgmental male gaze on their body, results in deeper forms of social control, self-surveillance and inequality. Highlighting the irony, such a representational shift from sexual objectification to that of assertive subjectification still denies women any humanized treatment and make them prone to attacks and vilification, with little opposition.
Combining research on objectification as well as on brain mechanisms of visual perception, the presented amalgam of findings adds perspectives from neuroscience research that is relevant to the topic and can help contextualize the discussion in greater detail.
Victimization might emerge, not only through prescriptive norms, with agents telling us what not to wear but also from those that cajole us to wear attire of certain kinds.
Examining the narratives of clothing practices prevalent in the mass media, Jackson et al. As we develop new public and policy responses to sexual discrimination, harassment and assault, we need to re-examine some underlying psychological and biological processes. Integrating these findings and identifying triggers for sexual violence may help develop effective remedial measures.
In addition to meaningfully contributing to existing knowledge, it is imperative to carry out more investigations in the future with prevention and intervention implications. Author Contributions BA, at the University of Glasgow is the sole contributing author for this manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Sex Roles 52 13— Attractiveness of the underling: Making and Meaning in Cultural Contexts. Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression. Integrating sexual objectification with object versus person recognition: From sex objects to human beings: The exonerating effect of sexual objectification: Between31 states and the District of Colombia banned corporal punishment in public schools, although in most cases private schools are not subject to that law.
Many schools, particularly those in southern states, uphold spanking or paddling as a quick, effective way to correct errant behavior without resorting to detention or suspension, which require time and resources.
Opponents argue that corporal punishment is, at best, physically inappropriate and at worst, traumatic, abusive, and disproportionately applied to boys, minority students, and students with disabilities. Furthermore, pressure to meet goals and incentives to compete with neighboring states tempts administration and teachers to falsify test results or assist students in cheating, as in the case of a school in Norristown, Georgia, whose superintendent and 34 subordinates were arrested in for fraudulently tampering with administration of a standardized test.
30 Most Controversial Education Practices in U. S. History
The photos, dating back todepicted naked male college students with metal pins affixed to their spines from the front, side, and rear views. While the photos were immediately shredded and burned, stories about their existence continued to circulate until the s, when writer Naomi Wolf a Yale graduate referenced the photos, prompting a response from Yale art history professor George Hersey, and an eventual New York Times investigation.
Whether these photos are evidence of some vast eugenic experiment designed to create a desirable Ivy League race is unknown; what is certain is that the practice invaded personal privacy and represented the failure of schools to protect their students from fashionable theory masquerading as science.
Image Source Without a doubt, teachers are dedicated professionals. Focused hours in and outside of the classroom, modest pay, and required adaptation to fluctuating state standards suggest that those who teach are there to work hard to instruct, support, and intellectually equip their students.
But after years of teaching the same lessons, or of attempting to reach students whose frame of reference lies outside of a traditional curriculum, it is probably not surprising that a few teachers have crossed the boundary between creative instructional example and inappropriate method. Inin a math course designed for inmates at the Arkansas Department of Correction, a math teacher was chastised for using drug references as part of his introductory math class, including incorporating the formula for producing methadone into a word problem, and using grams of cocaine as units of measurements in problem sets.
Although in most cases used by teachers whose intent was to reach out to or entertain their students, and therefore spark an interest in math, these examples have generally been deemed deviant and inappropriate, and have often resulted in discipline of the teacher.
Because of its national scope and political effect, this educational proposal has been particularly controversial. Lawmakers, taxpayers, educators and parents have come out either in favor of a standard of education which will ensure that all U.
Many who question the Common Core simply request information and clarification, and rightly so, since much of the controversy stems from inaccurate representation of these guidelines by politically-affiliated media. Whether the Common Core is viewed as a federal intrusion on state-run education, or a way for the U. The goal, cites Cuomo and other supporters of the plan, is to offer inmates opportunities to further their education while incarcerated, thus increasing their chances of securing a job after completing their prison sentences.
Despite the potential for money saved with decreased recidivism, opponents of the bill object to the use of taxpayer funds to subsidize the education of someone who has broken the law.
Students, lawmakers, and taxpayers alike engage in the controversy: Evolution Image Source Creationism was almost universally taught in U. Inthe Supreme Court ruled that teaching creationism violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment, which ensures that the U.
In contemporary public schools, only science which is not based on a religious view may be taught; a teacher may refer to creationism as an idea, but cannot uphold it as scientific theory, or present it as an alternative to evolution. Religious Christian groups argue that teaching creationism often called creation science or intelligent design presents an alternative which allows students to evaluate scientific theory for themselves, and that evolution is inaccurate and might be misleading, while others express concern that students taught creationism would be unprepared for careers in science in a world which assumes evolutionary origins.
While the Supreme Court ruling is clear, events like the Texas textbook controversy suggest that the debate is far from over. Although in the Supreme Court ruled that no school could force a student to stand or recite the Pledge, critics of the practice object to its presence in a public school, citing a violation of the constitutional right to freedom of religion, and insist that even an opt-out policy subjects students to discrimination or embarrassment if they choose not to participate while their peers are reciting.
These pursued relationships have led parents and teachers to develop alternate means of communication, and while means such as unaided communication systems which rely on body language, and aided communication systems, which make use of tools such as speech generating devices, have proved successful, two theories—rapid prompting and facilitated communication—have been particularly controversial.
Facilitated communication FC requires a facilitator to support the hands or arms of a student who is typing or using another device which will produce the written or typed thoughts and ideas of the student. Both methods, while intended to help non-verbal children and improve their social relationships, have not been proven sufficiently effective or scientifically sound.
Although proponents cite examples of people whose situations have improved, the methods remain controversial because they have not been able to offer significant results to hopeful parents and students. Based on its findings, the federal government recommended a series of guidelines for schools to examine the connection between race and punishment, and to impose more balanced disciplinary actions.
A student who talks out of turn in class should certainly be disciplined, but not suspended from school, or a dress code violation might result in detention, but not removal by the police, and if minority students are receiving greater penalties for minor infractions, then a school should re-consider its policies.
Behind the educational controversy is a war over political ideology, between those who assert that minority students exhibit more discipline problems because of issues of poverty and lack of parental support, and those who maintain that the education system in the U.
Like many controversies in education, the conflict over race-based school discipline policies reaches far beyond the classroom. Naysayers questioned the wisdom behind advising teenagers against pursuing university degrees in a world which tends to hire college graduates and provides few opportunities for college dropouts.
Thiel Fellowships continue to be controversial; the world has yet to see a major contribution from a participant in the program. It is still in its early stages, however. With time, a Thiel fellow may prove this educational experiment successful and may change the way the world values a university education. In the case of blended learning, schools complement in-class sessions with online information or instruction.
Not as drastic as flipping a school, a blended classroom can incorporate technology as the teacher or the needs of the class dictate. In some cases, students take home e-books or online homework which complement the daily lesson given by the teacher, or at other times students and teachers interact on blogs or social media.
Blended learning comprises a variety of activities, but all make use of the convenience of technology and the availability of great amounts of information. Similarly, on a college level, schools have begun to offer alternatives to traditional in-classroom education in the form of online courses and Massive Open Online Courses MOOCs. For students who have trouble incorporating on-campus courses into their schedules, online education allows those who otherwise may not have been able to further their education to complete a degree or learn about a new topic.
In addition to their reasonable cost online programs are often less expensive than traditional degree programsMOOCs allow near-universal access to one course or degree program.
While considered by many to be the wave of the future, blended learning and online education challenge traditional learning models. In elementary and secondary grades, parents and teachers express objections to substituting face-to-face interaction among teachers, students, and classmates for screen time.
Critics of online college education site similar concerns; in many cases, personal contact between student and professor can be a powerful learning tool, and exposure to the diversity and stimulation of a college classroom is often part of the university learning experience.
Despite controversy, however, it is clear that technology-driven learning is a steadily growing means to education around the world. Early English-speaking American colonies established schools to ensure that their children, male and female, were able to read and write religious texts. While in the early s most high schools and all colleges admitted only men, the midth century saw more—albeit separate—opportunities for women Oberlin College, the first co-educational college in the world, which opened inwas the exception to the single-sex schools of the period.
As co-educational schools arose, controversy ensued, generally over concerns about female propriety, intellectual capability, and health in secular, mixed-sex settings. Federal support of co-education became official when Congress passed Title IX legislation inguaranteeing that no one may be excluded from public education or government funding based on sex. Since that time, although public co-education has been the norm, it is nevertheless the subject of debate.
Both conservative and liberal scholars and educators have argued that for different reasons, co-education is not necessarily desirable.
As in the late 19th century, assertions about gendered learning styles and interactions between genders propel concerns about whether co-education is as desirable as once thought.
In recent years, Texas committees have proposed that science textbooks teach creationism alongside evolution, and have also selected history books which question the separation of church and state, as well as inaccurately invoke the presence of communism in the U.
The textbooks in question were boycotted, 9, children were kept home from school, and protesters planted bombs at county schools and attacked buses with shotguns, resulting in a fatal shooting. Although the books were eventually instated, the incident demonstrated how controversial education can be. A significant R2T condition specified the importance and necessity of providing effective teachers, and designated that teacher performance should be regularly evaluated.
For example, class assignment is not random, and some teachers may always have students whose frequent absences or home life issues negatively affect their test performances, no matter how good their teacher is. Value-added measures may also not work if there is a constant turnover in student population, or may be less effective evaluations of instructors who teach language arts, since teachers may not influence language as much as they do a subject like math.
While federal funding has encouraged reform in the ways schools evaluate their teachers, the methods by which schools will assess and reward the best possible teachers remain controversial. Since letter grades generally determine future academic success and even employment, students have a tangible goal toward which they work; teachers outline the expectations required for receipt of each grade, and students model their performances accordingly.
For example, a high school student who enters an English class unable to write a complete sentence may, by the end of the year, produce coherent four-paragraph essays. But because her textual analytic skills are still poor, her teacher cannot give her a high grade. Furthermore, in addition to academic growth, education is about personal maturity, discipline, and self analysis, which in most cases grades do not measure. Because of these inadequacies, some schools have abandoned letter grades in favor of more comprehensive narrative report cards.
Evolution, prayer in school is an educational controversy which stems from issues of separation of church and state. Public schools in the U. Since the s, courts have been fairly consistent in upholding the no-prayer rule, but debate still arises over allowing prayer at after school events on school property, such as sports games or graduations.
The controversy is far from resolved, with situations like the one in Clay County, Florida, in which a Baptist minister who held early morning prayer meetings at the flagpole before school was told by the school board that his actions were illegal, but continued to conduct the sessions. While itself controversial, the law indicates the passion and dedication demonstration by both sides of the debate; with religion and education comes inevitable controversy.